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    Study Description

    The MHAS study aims to design, field, and disseminate the data to achieve research goals that include:

    •  Examine the aging processes and its disease and disability burden in a large representative panel of older

    •  Evaluate the effects of individual behaviors, early life circumstances, migration and economic history, community
       characteristics, and family transfer systems on multiple health outcomes;

    •  Designed as a longitudinal study with protocols highly comparable to the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) of the
       United States;

    •  Compare the health dynamics of older Mexicans with comparably aged Mexican-born migrants in the U.S. and
       second generation Mexican-American using similar data from the U.S. population (for example the biennial
       Health and Retirement Study HRS) to assess the durability of the migrant health advantage;

    •  Assess the health of all components of the population from which migrants are selectively recruited:
       Mexican-born migrants living in the US, migrants who return to Mexico after various length of time in
       the U.S., and Mexicans with no residential history in the U.S.; and,

    •  Consider the ways in which intergenerational transfer systems affect old-age health dynamics in a country
       where migration is commonplace and remittances may repay prior investments or ensure against uncertainty
        in old age.

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    •  The MHAS baseline was nationally representative of the 13 million Mexicans born prior to 1951. The survey has national
       and urban/rural representation. The baseline survey, in 2001, included a nationally representative sample of Mexicans
       aged 50 and over and their spouse/partners regardless of their age. A direct interview was sought with each individual
       and proxy interviews were obtained when poor health or temporary absence precluded a direct interview.

    •  The sample was distributed in all 32 states of the country in urban and rural areas. Households in the six states
       which account for 40% of all migrants to the U.S. were over-sampled. A sub-sample was selected to obtain
        anthropometric measures.

    •  All interviews were conducted in person with paper-pencil by trained full-time interviewers of the Instituto
       Nacional de Estadistica y Geografia (INEGI) of Mexico.

    •  Self or proxy interviews were conducted with 15,186 selected persons and spouse/partners, for a response rate
        of 93%. Of these, a random sub-sample of 2,573 completed anthropometric measures.

    •  A follow-up interview with surviving respondents was conducted in 2003.

    •  The 2003 follow-up survey protocol included: a follow-up interview with all surviving respondents, a next-of-kin
       interview about deceased respondents; a complete baseline interview for new spouse/partners; and a proxy
       interview for respondents unable to complete their own interview because of illness or temporary absence.

    •  The second phase of the MHAS, includes a third follow-up survey that was conducted in 2012.
        A fourth round of the longitudinal study was completed in 2015.

    •  For the 2012 wave, interviews were conducted for every person who was part of the panel in 2003 and their new
       spouse/partner, if applicable, and a new sample of persons born between 1952 and 1962.

    •  Interviews were conducted person-to-person using CAPI (Computer-Assisted Personal Interviewing) by INEGI.
       Direct interviews were sought with all informants, but proxy interviews were conducted for those unable to complete
        their own interview for health or cognitive reasons. A next-of-kin interview was completed with a
        knowledgeable respondent for those who were part of the panel but have died since the last interview.
        A sub-sample was selected to obtain objective markers such as blood sample and anthropometric measures.

    •  The 2015 protocol included a follow-up interview with all the surviving respondents that had completed at least
       one interview since 2001. In addition, the protocol included those from the new sample added in 2012 that could
       not be contacted in 2012. Interviews were conducted person-to-person, using CAPI by INEGI. Direct interviews were
       sought with all the informants, but proxy interviews were completed for those unable to complete their own interview.
       A next-of-kin interview was completed for those who were part of the panel but died between 2012 and 2015.

    •  For the four waves, the study has completed a total of 4,497 next-of-kin interviews about the deceased study participants.

    Time Line
    Click here to see our timeline.

    Survey Contents
    The MHAS content includes:
    •  Health in multiple domains (self-report of global health, chronic conditions, symptom reports, functionality,
       depression, cognition),
    •  Socioeconomic conditions (current and in childhood), work history, health insurance, health expenditures,
    •  Family background (family structure, transfer behaviors, care arrangements, health and migration histories
       of respondents, parents and children), children (regardless of place of residence) and household residents,
    •  Income, assets, pension history, current housing, and quality of built environment.
    •  Major events over the last 10 years (only in 2012): change of residence, major health event, natural disaster,
       or crime event.
    •  Time use and psychosocial aspects (locus of control, life satisfaction, loneliness, and conscientiousness).
    •  For deceased study participants, last year of life: major events, use of health services, care receive, and functionality.
    •  Sub-sample for biomarkers, anthropometrics, and performance measures (only in 2012).

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    Useful Links

    G2 Aging: The Gateway to Global Aging Data ( is a web-based resource for accessing multidisciplinary panel data on aging, health, and retirement from the international family of Health and Retirement surveys.

    HRS: The Health and Retirement Study is a longitudinal panel study that surveys a representative sample of more than 26,000 Americans over the age of 50 every two years. Supported by the National Institute on Aging (NIA U01AG009740) and the Social Security Administration.

    CHARLS: The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study is a biennial survey in China being conducted by the National School of Development (China Center for Economic Research) at Peking University. CHARLS aims to be representative of the residents of China age 45 and older, with no upper age limit.

    ELSA: The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing is the first study in the UK to connect the full range of topics necessary to understand the economic, social, psychological and health elements of the ageing process.

    IFLS: The Indonesia Family Life Survey is the only large-scale longitudinal survey publicly available for Indonesia.

    JSTAR: The Japanese Study of Aging and Retirement is a panel survey of elderly people aged 50 or older conducted by the Research Institute of Economy.

    KLoSA: The Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging is a nationally-representative sample of more than 10,000 persons at least 45 years of age in the Republic of Korea.

    SHARE: The Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) is a multidisciplinary and cross-national panel database of microdata on health, socioeconomic status and social and family networks of more than 45,000 individuals aged 50 or over.

    TILDA: The Irish LongituDinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) is a study of a representative cohort of over 8,500 people resident in Ireland aged 50+.

    ELSI: ELSI-Brasil (The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Ageing) is a longitudinal and nationally representative survey of older adults in Brazil that will start in 2015.

    NICOLA: The Northern Ireland Cohort Longitudinal Study of Ageing is Northern Ireland’s long-term study of ageing and will closely follow the comprehensive approaches taken by other ageing studies.

    THSLS: The Scottish Longitudinal Survey of ageing is a planned longitudinal study expected to begin in 2015/2016, sampling around 10,000 older people over a ten-year period. Official website not available.

    SAGE:  WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health is a longitudinal study on adults aged 50 years and older, with nationally representative samples from China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russian Federation and South Africa.

    CLSAThe Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA) is a national study that will follow approximately 50,000 men and women between 45 and 85 years old for 20 years. Recruitment of 30,000 participants who will take part in at-home interviews began in early 2012

    HAALSIThe Health and Aging Study in Africa: Longitudinal Studies of INDEPTH communities (HAALSI) is a three year project and will establish cohorts of 4,000 men and women aged 50 and over throughout Africa, who will be interviewed and tested for HIV infection and cardiometabolic risk factors.

©2012 University of Texas Medical Branch